Hu Bailiang: Reflections on the Essence and Mission of Internationalization of Education
First, the essence of international education
A prominent manifestation of the internationalization of education is studying abroad. At present, China has become the world's largest exporter of foreign students. Therefore, thinking about the essence of internationalization of education should begin with a review of the current study abroad in China.
（A） about studying abroad
1. The history of studying in China for nearly a hundred years is the history of “struggling to win my ideal China.”
On October 21, 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping made a speech at the celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Founding of the European and American Students Association （hereinafter referred to as “speech”）， affirming the history of studying in China for more than 100 years, namely, “Searching for China's Ideal China” Struggle history records the dream of Chinese sons and daughters in pursuit of national rejuvenation. “The speech” put forward four “history can not be forgotten”： The first one will never forget is: 100 years ago, Sun Yat-sen, the forerunner of the Chinese democratic revolution, established the All-China Alliance with the Chinese students studying in Japan at the time as the backbone, launched and led Xinhai The revolution overthrew the monarchy that ruled China for thousands of years and ignited the hope of rejuvenating China. The second will not forget that in the 1920s, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, as well as a large number of overseas students such as Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De, The experienced advanced elements vigorously publicized and actively promoted the integration of Marxism-Leninism with the Chinese workers' movement and founded the Chinese Communist Party. During the same period, many overseas students returned to their home countries and played an important role in pioneering the economic and social development in our country. The third one will not forget that during the early days of the People's Republic of China, a large number of experts, scholars and democrats, such as Hua Luogeng and Qian Xuesen, who have studied abroad gave up their excellent living conditions and return to work and made great contributions to the construction of new China ; The fourth will not forget that since the reform and opening up, the Central Party Committee made a strategic decision to expand sending overseas students. By the end of 2012, 2.64 million of China's study abroad personnel and 109 million of returning overseas students had come to China to promote our economy Social development has made an important contribution.
2. The Current Situation of Chinese Students Studying Abroad
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Education, from 1978 to 2013, the total number of overseas students of all kinds who study abroad or are still in the rest of the world has reached over 310 million.
The international flow of high-level talents in our country is still in a state of “outflow greater than inflow” as a whole. According to data from the U.S. government research institutes, a Ph.D. degree in science and engineering was obtained in the United States in 2002, and five years later still remained among the U.S. graduates. The highest retention rate in China was 92%. China ranks first in the world in terms of the number of top talents to drain, with an average retention rate of 87% in science and engineering. In the past 35 years, more than 1 million overseas students have returned to their home countries, but only about 20,000 of them are high-level talents. From 1990 to 2013, the number of immigrants from Mainland China rose from 4.25 million to 9.34 million, an increase of 119.6%, making it the fourth largest immigrant exporter in the world. The United Nations Population Division announced in September 2013 that 2.2 million U.S. immigrants were born in mainland China and have become the second largest immigrant community in the United States. （Miao Dan country “How to treat China studying abroad phenomenon”， “China Education News” January 17, 2014 eighth edition）
According to the 2011 National Open Report published by the Institute of International Education on November 14, 2011, China's study abroad in the United States has shown a trend of becoming younger and less educated: the annual growth rate of graduate students is 15.6% and the annual growth rate of undergraduates is as high as 42.7%. Between 2005 and 2006, there were only 65 Chinese students in upper secondary schools in the United States, compared with 6,725 in 2010-2011 academic year. 21.1% of high school graduates who gave up college entrance examination in 2010 were out of schooling, and their number of high school students studying abroad increased to 28% in 2011. According to the “China Statistical Yearbook 2011” data, in 2010 China went abroad to study 284,700, learn to return only 134,800. Since 1978, the brain drain in our country has reached as high as 74.23%, the highest in the world. The domestic public opinion circles have warned that China's top universities and famous high schools are bound to become preparatory departments for Western universities. Some Chinese parents admit that the tide of studying abroad is actually a flight caused by the fear of exam-oriented education. （China Education Daily, April 13, 2012, Eighth Edition）
In the country to complete the undergraduate academic “college entrance examination champion” seldom choose to work or start a business in China, accounting for up to 60% to go abroad for further study, only a handful of returnees. 2012.4.10 Comparative Study Report on Intention to Study and Life Consciousness of High School Students from Japan, Japan, Korea and the United States issued by China Youth Research Center: 70.1% of Chinese high school students are interested in studying abroad, 79.9% of Chinese parents agree that their children should study abroad, and 77.6% Of China's high school students are going abroad to seek a better education environment, far higher than South Korea （39.1%）， the United States （37.9%） and Japan （16.8%）。 （Yu Ke “Outsourcing is Education Outsourcing,” “China Education Daily” July 12, 2013, 3rd Edition）
Such a situation, normal （for a reason）， nor normal （damage to national interests）， is worth our reflection.
Reflections on the basic status quo of studying abroad in China today
Why in recent decades has emerged for others to train top talent phenomenon?
From an external reason, some developed countries do not want China to become a power. Their one very important strategy for us is “beheading and rooting.” The so-called “decapitation” is to attract the best talents of our country to them for their use. The so-called “eliminating the root” means occupying our market. Therefore, the internationalization of education is also a fierce competition for high-level talent.
Of course, external factors are only conditions for change. Internal factors are the basis for change. External factors work through internal factors. From an internal education point of view, there is a problem with our education system. Examination-oriented education system, only test scores, do not talk about the ideal of faith, so that people lose their patriotic sentiments and social responsibility.
“Exam-oriented education” is actually a kind of education for ignorant people. It is a soulless education. It can only cultivate people who have the pursuit of individual utilitarian goals without ambitious ideals, knowledge, no culture, and serious mental and physical distress.
（B） what is the internationalization of education
Internationalization of education is never as simple as some people think. As long as some foreign curricula are offered, it is only a matter of success if several foreign teachers are invited to send their students abroad for study.
As for the internationalization of education, I see the following statement: The core or essence of internationalization of education is that in the general context of economic globalization and trade liberalization, all countries want to make full use of both domestic and international education markets and optimize Allocate its own educational resources and elements, seize the commanding height of world education, cultivate internationally competitive high-quality personnel and serve the highest interests of its own country. In an age when the knowledge economy is becoming increasingly apparent, the competition for comprehensive national strength is, in the final analysis, the competition for qualified personnel. Who owns a large number of high-quality, innovative and innovative talents, who can grasp the initiative of social and economic development, in the fierce competition in an invincible position. Therefore, the ultimate goal of internationalization of education is to foster talents with international awareness, international communication skills and international competitiveness that can be based on the local community, look to the world and participate actively in international competition.
I agree with the basic point of this statement. The expression of the core point of view there are three:
First, internationalization of education is a product of the development of human society into an era of economic globalization and trade liberalization. Second, it is a competition in the field of cultivating high-quality personnel. Third, both serve the highest interests of the country. .
How to achieve the internationalization of education, to be complete, should include the following six aspects: 1. To establish the concept of international education; 2. To establish the education of international training objectives; 3. To build education system of international curriculum; To strengthen the international exchange of education; 5. To actively develop international cooperation in running schools; 6. To deal with the WTO service （education） trade rules.
Second, the mission of international education
（A） the mission of international education
In his “speech,” General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward ardent hopes for overseas students and called on all returned overseas students to unify the patriotic feelings, the will of the great powers and the activities of serving the country and integrate their individual dream into the people's fulfillment of the Chinese dream Among them, wrote his name above the glorious annals of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. This shows us the mainstream values ??of studying abroad.
It is the glorious mission of China to develop international education to train top-quality talents in China. Therefore, our education should shift the motivation of students studying abroad to the mainstream values ??of revitalizing China.
What is revitalization of China? To revitalize China is not to return China to the feudal dynastic era that has been historically strong but to establish a modernized country that is democratic and the rule of law and strong, rich and powerful, whose people are happy and respected.
The modernization of Chinese society, in the final analysis, is determined by the modernization of the national qualities. In a certain sense, hopes are pinned on a group of elites with Chinese soul and world sentiments that can lead Chinese society forward and truly realize the dream of the Chinese people to revitalize China for centuries.
（B） Jurong Country Garden School adhere to the founder's pursuit of education
We should uphold the entrepreneurial spirit of Mr. Yang Guoqiang, the founder of the school, and his “entrepreneurial spirit of” hoping that society will become more beautiful because of our existence. “We will have a strong dream of education in running for the revival of our nation.” Learning to be a man, The score is more important, “the concept of running a school;” students should be cultivated into a model of national soul with the feelings of the Chinese people and future success of those who work hard “goals;” to contribute to the community = successful people = talent “ Talent concept.
To do this, should become our Country Garden School is different from what other basic features of international schools.
1. We must give top priority to cultivating Chinese people who love China
We should educate each and every student to understand that human society has not yet reached the interests of its own people without the benefit of the nation （state） even though it is still under the age of a nation （state） as the basic form of existence. A person, a family, can change your nationality, but can not change your original nationality. No matter where you go, your destiny always rests with your motherland. This truth has been proven by countless historical facts.
A nation （or family, unit） that everyone strives for for his own benefit will sooner or later be eliminated （eliminated）。 Therefore, patriotism is the soul （core value） of the people in modern society.
In human society, there are individuals and groups （families, units, societies, nations, countries）， parts and components （units and units, regions and regions, nations and nations, nations and nations）， and parts and whole World, mankind and earth） … …
Human conflicts of interest are the general source of the fighting in human society. In the past, we emphasized the absolute nature of the struggle and your life and death. We are now advocating mutual benefits and win-win results and living in harmony.
Practice has proved that: there is no overall interest protection of individual interests does not exist; denied the overall interests of individual interests is unreasonable. This truth is equally true for all individuals, families, communities, nations, nations, and people.
The heroes who can sacrifice their own interests for the sake of their overall interests are called heroes and heroes who can sacrifice their own interests for national interests are called national heroes. They will have eternal life. For the sake of their own interests, the sacrifice of national interests is called sinister sinners. No history shows that there is a good ending of.
Countries that can make profits for the overwhelming majority of people call them democracies and will be championed by the people; those who make profits for the minority are autocratic nations that must be eliminated by history.
These common truths all over the world, we should and can be passed on to students through various channels in our school.
The reason why we chose IB course is because the idea of ??IB course conforms to our mission of running school and is in line with our education goal. What is the first person to cultivate, what kind of training is the second, this relationship can not be reversed. We should make the IB curriculum Chinese and school-based so that we can better meet our training objectives. For example, we must adhere to the Chinese language, Chinese culture, Chinese history and Chinese geography as a compulsory course, and in line with national requirements.
If the point I made today makes sense, then our school should be based on the IB curriculum, but also higher than the IB curriculum.
2. To establish a comprehensive view of the quality of education.
We should not only emphasize the teaching of cultural knowledge, but also strengthen the education of students' beliefs, ideals and moral qualities, education of patriotism and Chinese traditional culture, cultivate good physical and psychological qualities, and maintain the harmonious development of morality and morality. Not only to pay attention to the students' test scores, but also to cultivate their habits and abilities to learn, diligently study and learn; not only emphasize the study of book knowledge, but also emphasize social practice, develop the ability of independent thinking and living, practical ability and creativity Instead of using the exam results as the ”terminal“ of education, they should lay the foundation for lifelong student life and work.
How many students are admitted to prestigious universities abroad is not the fundamental criterion for measuring the quality of running a school. It is our fundamental task to cultivate students into useful talents for rejuvenating China. Like the Guohua School, we must establish a lifelong tracking file system for graduates to continuously optimize the education system.
A prestigious school should be a homeland where teachers and students grow together. Teachers work hard, not only for a salary, but also for a noble cause - not a teacher, to become an educator.
The model is recognized by society because of its lofty goals and outstanding contributions. We must strive to become a successful example of international education!
（The author is honorary president of Jurong Country Garden School, South Central attached Central Plains president）
Hu Bailiang introduction
Nanjing Normal University, the former headmaster, Jurong Country Garden School honorary president. Physical supervisor. Former vice president of Jiangsu Provincial Institute of Education, Jiangsu Province, physics teaching research association, China Education Society of high school education vice chairman and other staff. Retired in 1994. Nanjing was awarded the title of specialist in basic education, Jiangsu Province, an honorary professor of primary and secondary schools. September 2009 was elected ”New China in 60 years of Jiangsu Education most influential people.“ The educational monographs include Hu 100 Liang High School Physics Teaching Research Collection, High School Physics Teaching Practice and Research, Hu Bailiang Education Collection, Principal's Special Mission, and My Reflection on China's Elementary Education.