American education system overview
What is the American education system like? Why do so many parents are willing to send their children to the United States to receive education? Today we learn about the education system in the United States and compare the differences between the education systems in China and the United States.
First, the United States education system
Public and private education
There are two types of schools in the United States: public schools and private schools. The scale of the public school system is huge. There are U.S. government subsidies behind it. More than 90% of American students attend the public education system. The federal government also has a Ministry of Education, but its function is different from that of our country's Ministry of Education. The U.S. Department of Education is a research and advisory body for education policy. It is responsible for formulating education policies, but it does not participate in enforcement work, nor does it supervise local schools. Therefore, The quality of education, the study of educational issues and the adoption of education bills all play a great role. The education in the United States is planned and formulated by the state governments of various states and states. The federal government does not have the power to supervise and regulate. Public schools are funded by state and federal governments and are therefore governed by the state cantons and are governed by the laws of the state legislatures governing education. Private schools are largely unregulated by the government. Influential school policies are the Parents and Teachers Association （PTA） and the more professional educational institutions, such as 277017065.
American Compulsory Education
The United States 6-18 years of primary and secondary compulsory education, divided into four stages, namely pre-school, primary, secondary and higher education. Before graduating from high school general education, to higher education （colleges, universities and research institutes） before vocational education and general education. There is no scholastic ability test in American academic system and college entrance examination. Students apply for admission to university on their own by virtue of their school scores and SAT / ACT scores. Unlike many countries, the United States does not have the name of a state university and compulsory education is borne by the state government. And in the part of compulsory education, as long as it is a legal resident （green card）， there is the right to compulsory education, and compulsory education in the United States is free, do not have to pay tuition and fees, textbooks. All primary and secondary schools in the United States provide free textbooks for students, most of which are passed on to the next student from the previous student until they can not be used. In addition, there are some school practice books, homework do not have to buy, but by the school. Students buy their own stationery, in contrast, save a lot of money! Higher education is divided into state and private. State residents at State University can enjoy lower tuition fees and higher fees for state and international students. Private universities do not differentiate between state and outside tuition fees. American universities in the first two years of admission, freshman, sophomore to take general education courses, junior decided to major courses. In addition, studying medical, legal and other professional courses to graduate, test to the relevant examination, can apply.
Second, the United States education stage
Primary School 4-11 years old
Primary American education, which includes nurseries and kindergartens （4-5 years old） and primary schools （6-11 years old）， will make up part of their elementary school. Preschool children do not have a mandatory nursery, but there are government subsidies to subsidize children from low-income families, so most families need to pay for their own nursery. Primary schools in the United States generally refer to the first year to the fifth grade （kindergarten primary）， but some of them provide education to the sixth grade, or merge the secondary education to the eighth grade. Most of them adopt a class system with a class tutor system. The teacher is responsible for taking most of the major classes in a class. Students stay in the day except for lunchtime or sports, music or art classes may go to the gymnasium or special classrooms There is no fixed class time in a tutor's classroom as in a school in East Asia. However, a tutor can give students free time in the classroom, and some teachers reward and deny students with free time or deprivation. In addition, in about 40% of primary schools, there will be one or two times a day, ten minutes or twenty minutes of outdoor activities each time, the number of outdoor activities and the length of time, and each school may not be the same.
Secondary School 12-18 years old
Secondary education consists of 2 years of junior high school （12-14 years） and 4 years of high school （15-18 years）， from 9th grade to 12th grade, with pupils typically aged 14/15 to 17/18. Successful completion of the 12th grade, you can get a high school diploma. In addition, students who do not have a high school diploma can take the General Education Development （GED） test and earn a certificate certifying their academic ability at high school.
College and University 19-22 years old
University education, divided into four-year university and community college. A four-year university will earn a Bachelor's degree in four years, while a community college usually takes an associate's degree after two years of reading.
Graduate School 22 years old / 23 years old
Master's degree, doctoral degree and professional degree, the course includes a master's program, post-master's higher education courses, research-based degree and professional degree （such as medicine, law, etc.）。 Master's degree is about 1 - 2 years of practice, as for the other may not necessarily, depending on the schools and departments set.
Third, the type of American university
In American college education, more than 40% of students attend community colleges. Many U.S. high school graduates choose a two-year community college first, complete the first two years of university basic courses and then transfer to a four-year university to complete their studies. This is called “2 + 2”。 In addition to transfer courses, community colleges can also provide skills training so that students have the skills to immediately enter the job market. Because tuition is lower and closer to home, many high school graduates choose these schools when tuition fees have risen year by year. After completing the freshman and sophomore classes, most community colleges also sign contracts with four-year universities to ensure that students transfer to further their studies at the university and gain a bachelor's degree. Community colleges have a lower standard of entry for international students. If you have an English language proficiency level, it will be easier for you to apply for a community college under the more ordinary academic standards. You study hard at community colleges and get excellent grades. You also have a good chance of applying to enter first-rate universities in the United States.
Similar to China's ordinary universities, there are liberal arts colleges, liberal arts colleges, and educational institutes. Some of them are schools of engineering, business, agriculture and management. This university is the most common in the United States, this university will provide a bachelor's degree, there will be a research institute to train master's and doctoral students. Such schools usually also have a well-stocked library & well-equipped laboratories, laboratories, and many courses for students to choose from. Disadvantages: These schools often have more people, so there may be no choice of course to extend the length of schooling; more classes, students are more unable to accept the professor's direct guidance. Apart from this, school professors often have the pressure to carry out continuous research, and as a result, less effort may be exerted on teaching and caring students, and as a result, students are mostly exposed to teaching assistants.
College of Arts and Sciences
Provide a bachelor's degree, the school is smaller, fewer students. The course includes texts and lectures and it should be noted that some of these schools have master's programs, but usually do not have a research institute. Most teachers have a doctorate in teaching and pay great attention to teaching and student counseling. Such universities have developed rapidly in recent years and offer many specialized courses. These schools also recruit international students, but the requirements are higher and usually require students better reading and writing skills.
Business, engineering, art, music, design, military, etc. Students in professional colleges have a clear direction for their careers. The school curricula will focus more on developing their abilities to engage in certain industries. Have a lot of practical professional courses, there will be internship courses. This school will adopt a small class education and individual counseling methods, so that students and professors have close contact, many of these professional colleges are very good
Many institutes are independent colleges affiliated to polytechnic universities and are known for certain specialized subjects. The most commonly heard are “business schools” which not only provide management courses for general graduates but also many excellent businesses Management courses, specifically to the business executives to business education. Courses may take from one week to one year. Students who have earned a bachelor's degree can continue their education for a master's degree or doctorate （also known as PhD）。 The American graduate school programs are more specialized and intensive than undergraduate programs because the Institute believes that students have gained an understanding of the basics of what they have learned.